1.Tympanic membrane perforation
Tympanic membrane perforation is still relatively common, and many causes can cause perforation of the tympanic membrane, such as otitis media, sound waves of an explosion, or trauma. Patients often feel severe pain in the ear, and sometimes the ear may bleed or purulent. Tympanic membrane perforation can result in mild to moderate conductive hearing loss. In many cases, small perforations on the tympanic membrane can heal themselves without treatment, while large perforations require surgical repair.
The cause of otitis media is usually inflammation and middle ear effusion. Otitis media is quite common, especially in children, with a high rate of illness. Mainly because the eustachian tube in the middle ear cavity is blocked and the drainage is not smooth. Usually, when people swallow or yawn, the Eustachian tube will open automatically. Because the child’s Eustachian tube is horizontal, not downward, the throat tube may not open when swallowed or yawned, and the adult will naturally open the Eustachian tube with the help of gravity.
If otitis media is not treated in time, it will continue to spread to the mastoid. The mastoid is a bone process behind the ear, the bone is not strong, and the internal structure is sponge-like. If the bacteria are infected with the mastoid, it can cause mastoiditis. If the infection is not treated properly, it will develop further and have serious consequences.
A common treatment for mastoiditis is the use of antibiotics to kill the bacteria it infects, sometimes using mastoid incisions, including resecting the mastoids to eliminate infection, and for critically ill patients, complete removal of the mastoids is required. The middle ear listens to small bones and tympanic membrane. The consequences of mastoidectomy usually deform the ear canal, resulting in permanent mild to moderate conductive deafness.