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Comprehensive characteristics of deaf people’s psychology

1, cognitive features

Deaf people lose their hearing, rely on gesture language to communicate with others, rely on the visual form of visual organs to obtain information, and communicate, so visually sensitive, image thinking is very developed, while logical thinking and abstract thinking are relatively poor.

Behavioral and personality deviations, their cognitive characteristics are mainly poor reality, easy to leave the actual thinking, with a strong fantasy, and the ideological methods show obvious one-sidedness, but also show a paranoid tendency, when serious There are delusions.

2, personality characteristics

  对于听力残疾人的个性,至今还没有系统的研究。造成这种状况的原因有二:一是由于研究发展不够,没有足够的文献资料供人们参考。二是听力残疾人并没有明显不同于普通人的独特的”聋人个性”。因为个性是个体社会化的结果。它在一定的社会关系中形成、发展起来,又在一定的社会关系中表现出来。听力丧失并不能从本质上改变人的社会关系,也不能改变社会关系对个性形成的影响,只能说耳聋和由耳聋引起的语言障碍,会给他们的某些心理特征的形成带来一定的影响,从而使心理特征的某些方面显示出一定程度的带有普遍性的特点。尽管如此,那些在听力残疾人中比较普遍的特点也不是他们所独有的。例如,国外有的学者认为:”聋童因为不会说话,在生活上发生矛盾与乏味的感触,精神苦闷,无从发泄,所以待人的礼貌往往不周。因其缺乏判断力,如发觉有人在说笑,便会猜疑是在讥笑自己,而常有误会及暴躁的行为。”如果这样就假定”暴躁”是聋人的一种较普遍的心理反应,那么正常人的”暴躁”行为就无法解释,故不能认为它是聋人所特有的个性特征。

  对于听力残疾人的个性特征,目前多见于对他们的个性特征的罗列。美国学者梅多写道:”个性特点的罗列,总是表明比正常儿有更多的顺应问题,他们表现出行动固定化、自我中心、缺乏内部控制能力、冲动和易受暗示的特点。”日本的大桥正夫在他的<教育心理学>一书中写道:”聋儿在思想交流上有困难,社会经验狭窄。因此,他们在社会的、情绪的各个侧面的行为特征,一般地说显著落后于正常儿童。主要的特征表现为畏首畏尾、过分盲从等等。”台湾学者何华国在列举听力障碍学生的行为特征时提到:“如果学生无法听,他的人格与行为问题便可随之而生。他也可能为寻找补偿而显得特别浮动。有的学生也会经常表现出退缩、固执或害羞的行为。”

Some of the deaf children in China have summarized the personality characteristics of deaf children from their actual performances, such as loneliness, arrogance or inferiority, impatience, subjective unilateralism, suspicion, selfishness and so on. The character of the deaf is more extroverted, the emotional response is stronger, the frequency is high, but the duration is short. The character is bold and straight, “good” is “good”, “bad” is “bad”, and rarely turns around. Observing problems often only sees the superficial phenomenon of the problem, and does not pay much attention to the internal connection of the problem. Some monks tend to be in front of the world and consider long-term interests. Some deaf people are biased towards the direct expression of the material world and emotions, and are not willing to explore the connotation of the knowledge world. They analyze life through direct fun, concrete actions, and their own emotional expressions.

3, treatment and training

According to the internationally accepted classification method, the degree of deafness can be divided into: mild, moderate, severe deafness and full deafness. Mild deafness is difficult to hear from a long distance or is difficult to perceive a low-distance conversation at a general distance. The hearing threshold (the lowest decibel number that can be heard) is between 10 and 30 decibels; moderate deafness is difficult to perceive in close conversation. You need someone to speak aloud to hear, the hearing threshold is around 50 decibels; severe deafness, the hearing threshold is above 60 decibels, you can hear the loud shouting in the ear; if the hearing threshold is above 90 decibels, it can be counted as full.

Mild deafness has little effect on the formation of children’s speech; moderate deafness can lead to unclear speech, to the hospital for hearing analysis, to find out the cause of treatment, and to ask the doctor to help wear a hearing aid, if the treatment is timely, avoid Deafness; although severe deafness can also be used by doctors to wear hearing aids, special education experts should be invited as early as possible to use special methods for early speech training.

4, memory characteristics

1) The general memory characteristics of hearing disabled people: mainly in the memory of Chinese materials, its remarkable feature is to remember slow, forget fast. There are three main reasons for this feature: 1 related to the perceived characteristics of the hearing disabled. We know that the communicative function of language is realized by the material form of speech acting on human speech analyzer. Hearing loss does not perceive or clearly perceive the sound stimuli of the language, thus losing one of the most important and often the means of perceptual language. Thus the memory of the linguistic material is not strong and inaccurate. In addition, there is a lack of neural connection between language hearing and speech stimuli. The pronunciation is not supervised by the auditory, the adjustment function is greatly weakened, the pronunciation is inaccurate, and the memory is not accurate. 2 is related to the method of memory. The slowness of language development is the biggest limitation caused by hearing disability. Children with hearing disabilities have not been able to acquire language since childhood, and their understanding of language is extremely poor. Therefore, most of the language materials are mechanically memorized. Taking recall sentences as an example, they tend to recite words by word, do not reorganize sentences according to their meaning, and do not flexibly change another. This way of memorizing is much more difficult than just remembering the meaning of the sentence, so the memory effect is poor. 3 is related to too little opportunity for reinforcement. We estimate the 14 hour awakening time of a person every day. When a normal child awakens, various forms of speech activities are always accompanied by other activities. The absolute “no speech” quiet period is very few. The daily speech activity of a school-age hearing-impaired child is limited to the classroom, and the effective speech activity time for him is less than the class time. Strengthening is a necessary condition for memory consolidation, and lack of reinforcement is also an important reason for deaf children to forget.

(2) Image memory characteristics of hearing disabled persons: Some studies have shown that children with hearing disabilities have a strong tendency to remember: the memory representation changes rapidly, and the differences between the appearances of different things gradually become blurred until they are confused. The phenomenon. This is more pronounced in children with hearing disabilities in the early and middle school ages. As age and knowledge grow, there is a tendency to pay more and more attention to the differences between the representations of things rather than confusing them.

(3) Visual image memory characteristics of hearing-impaired persons with disabilities: When the stimuli are extremely short (0.04 seconds) for the combination of points and lines, their reproduction scores are even better than normal children.

(4) Sports memory and emotional memory of hearing-impaired people: In this respect, there is no significant difference between the hearing-impaired person and the normal person. They have no mastery of many operational skills.

5, thinking characteristics

Because of the close relationship between thinking and language, the thinking characteristics of hearing disabled people depend to a large extent on their dependence on language. It is precisely because of this that the deaf-mute children’s thinking has been used by some scholars as a “natural test of the relationship between research thinking and language. The American Furth wrote a book on the subject of hearing disabled, called “without language.” Thinking> When we discuss the thinking characteristics of hearing disabled people, it is also necessary to involve whether the thinking operation can be separated from the language. Children with hearing disabilities can also have logical thinking without a language system, but master the language system (gesture language) for them. Solving problems or completing learning tasks can be extremely helpful.

Some scholars divide the development of normal children’s thinking into three main stages: intuitive action thinking, concrete image thinking and abstract thinking. The development of thinking for children with hearing disabilities has generally experienced these three stages. Some experimental studies have shown that in the first two stages of development, children with hearing disabilities are not behind the normal children of the same age, and only show backward in the third stage. Because the third stage of thinking is more closely related to the language that masters abstract summarization. Some people have used the “functional fixation” experimental method to study the lack of flexibility of the thinking of hearing disabled people. Children with hearing disabilities are found to be less able to function than normal children. They often limit the individual’s ability to think about the inherent use of tools or materials. This shows that children with hearing disabilities have a low level of generalization of thoughts, and it is difficult to see the more “general” common factors between objects. Compared with normal children, they are more difficult and less motivated to solve such problems.

Zhang Ningsheng of Liaoning Normal University, in collaboration with Dr. Elderrech of the University of Arizona in the United States, conducted a study to assess the extent of the impact of severe hearing loss on cognitive ability. Prior to this study, Eldridge’s similar study of children with hearing disabilities and Kirk’s hearing children showed that hearing loss does not necessarily hinder cognitive development, and even some children with hearing disabilities show A higher level of cognitive function than a hearing child of the same age. This study used a non-linguistic material test method. From this point of view, when children with hearing disabilities do not master the language, their thinking reflects the objective reality in an intuitive way. Therefore, when testing with non-verbal materials, it does not appear to be behind the normal children, but abstract thinking. There are big difficulties. With the mastery of language and the accumulation of knowledge and experience, the level of thinking will gradually increase, and it can approach or reach the level of ordinary people.

In general, the impact of hearing impairment on thinking is only slow and low level of development, and there is no logical confusion of thinking, so there is no thinking disorder.

6, comprehensive rehabilitation for hearing impaired people

The fundamental way out for the rehabilitation of hearing disabled people lies in the prevention and treatment of phlegm. However, if hearing is impaired and persistent hearing defects are caused, “聋” has become a reality, then the focus of work should be on speech rehabilitation. Because “dumb” is not an independent type of defect, it is a secondary defect or symptom that is subordinate to another disease. Therefore, the speech disability caused by hearing disability is only a functional disorder. The vocal organs are intact and can usually be remedied through education and training to restore function. In other words, the rehabilitation problem of hearing disability is essentially a problem of speech rehabilitation. Speech rehabilitation requires both the use of residual hearing and the sensitivity of residual hearing. It can be seen that the development of the speech ability of the hearing disabled is the central link in the rehabilitation of hearing disabilities. It is in this sense that the teaching of deaf-mute schools is also an integral part of the rehabilitation of hearing disabilities. A fundamental principle in the teaching of deaf-mute schools is to develop the language of students with hearing disabilities in the process of imparting cultural and scientific knowledge; to teach various cultural and scientific knowledge on the basis of developing the language of students with hearing disabilities, and to learn culture at the same time. Scientific knowledge is combined with the development of language and the formation of a good personality.

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REF: Hearing AidsHearing Aids TypesDigital Hearing Aids
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