The speech source is generated in the throat and formed in the vocal tract. The vocal tract is a resonance chamber composed of the pharynx, the mouth, the nasal cavity and their accessory organs. When the acoustic energy pulse airflow passes through the pharyngeal cavity, the oral cavity, and the nasal cavity, various resonances are generated, and the airflow is regulated by various activities of the articulation organ in the oral cavity, and different sounds can be emitted.
The vocal tract (oral, nasal, and pharyngeal) is connected to the larynx, and the nasal cavity communicates with the oral cavity. The oral cavity is the most active organ of organ, the tongue moves forward and backward, high and low in the mouth, changes the shape of the channel of the resonance system, and emits different vowels. Different parts of the tongue form occlusion and stenosis with the dentition, gums, hard palate, and soft palate, which constitute different consonants. The motion of the channel is the source of resonance for speech.
Oral resonance occurs in the oral cavity, and good oral resonance should be emitted from the surface of the central tongue of the mouth. The tongue position has a great influence on the speech quality: the tongue position is easy to lead to the front focus (ie, the doll adjustment), and the tongue position leads to the posterior focus. However, if the tongue position is too low, the throat position will be focused. There are only three nasal sounds/m, n, ng/ in the Chinese system that require nasal resonance. Nasal resonance occurs in the nasal cavity. The mouth and nasal cavity are separated by a hard palate (the top of the oral cavity) and a soft palate (the top of the mouth). Non-nose sounds require a soft palate to move up and down to close the nasopharynx passage. Nasal sounds require the soft palate to hang down, the nasopharynx is quickly open, and the sound waves hang through the soft palate and reach the nasal cavity. Some people have too much nasal resonance, while others are too few. Natural speech requires a coordination between the oral and nasal sounds.
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Airflow exhaled from the lungs, through the lungs, bronchi, and trachea, and then to the throat. The vocal cords on both sides are located in the throat, and the area between the vocal cords is the glottis. The glottis opens in an inverted “V” shape. This position is in the inhalation process, and the air passes through the glottis and reaches the lungs without any resistance. When the sound is made, the glottis closes in an “I” shape. In the closed state, the exhaled airflow passes through the glottis, causing the vocal cord to vibrate. When the vocal cord vibrates, a series of airflow pulse waves are generated and converted into a series of acoustic energy pulse signals, thereby forming a basic sound source of speech, which is a voice (or vocal). The movement of the vocal cords is the source of vibration produced by speech.
A natural voice can occur when the glottic closure time is coordinated with the airflow exhalation time. If the glottis is not fully closed, it will make the voice sound too heavy. If the glottis is closed too tightly, it will cause the voice to be too harsh. Glottic closure can neither be too fast nor too slow, resulting in a relaxed and harmonious voice.
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