Sudden deafness It refers to the sudden occurrence, which can be within 3 days, at least in the two adjacent frequencies, the hearing loss is more than 20dBHL.The cause of the disease is unknown, also known as sudden sensorineuralHearing loss（SSNHL）。至今，对SSNHL尚无统一的定义，近年来有人认为SSNHL是一个综合症，许多致病都可以引出SSNHL。发病率约为10年5万至20万，大多数为单耳发病，双耳患者占1%，40~60岁成年人发病率高，男性较多，春秋季节易发病。
SSNHL can be caused by a variety of different causes, and it is currently believed to be related to blood supply disorders in the inner ear or viral infections.
Clinically, unilateral disease is more common, and both ears are sometimes affected at the same time or successively.It is mainly manifested as hearing loss in a short period of time, ranging from mild to total deafness.It can be temporary or permanent.Tinnitus occurs before and after hearing loss, accounting for about 70%.Half of the patients have dizziness, nausea, vomiting and heaviness and numbness around the ears, which can last for 4 to 7 days, and mild dizziness can last for more than 6 weeks.A small number of patients see a doctor with vertigo as the main symptom, which is easy to be misdiagnosed as Meniere’s disease.Some have ear blockage before hearing loss appears.Spontaneous nystagmus may occur if there is vertigo.
According to the definition of SSNHL, it is not difficult to make a diagnosis of SSNHL, and it is often diagnosed based on the following manifestations:
1) If it happens suddenly, it can be within minutes, hours or 3 days.
2) Non-fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, which can be mild, moderate or severe, or even total deafness.Hearing loss is more than 20dBHL at least at the two connected frequencies.Most are unilateral, and occasionally, both sides occur simultaneously or successively.
3) The cause is unknown.No clear cause was found, including systemic or local factors.
4) It may be accompanied by tinnitus and ear blockage.
5) It may be accompanied by dizziness, nausea, and vomiting, but does not recur.
6) Except for the eighth cranial nerve, there are no other symptoms of cranial nerve damage.
Before diagnosis, the medical history and incidence of SSNHL patients should be carefully collected, and comprehensive otology, neuro-otology, audiology, vestibular function, imaging and laboratory examinations should be performed to find the possible cause.
The sooner the treatment of SSNHL, the better. If the cause can be found, try to find out the cause. With its better curative effect, the prognosis of patients with dizziness is poor.
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