the effect of foot arch on plantar pressure distribution during standing

The aim of this study was to explore how foot type affects plantar pressure distribution during standing. In this study, 32 healthy subjects voluntarily participated and the subject feet were classified as: normal feet (n = 23), flat feet (n = 14) and high arch feet (n = 27) according to arch index (AI) values obtained from foot pressure intensity image analysis. Foot pressure intensity images were acquired by a pedopowergraph system to obtain a foot pressure distribution parameter-power ratio (PR) during standing in eight different regions of the foot. Contact area and mean PR were analysed in hind foot, mid-foot and fore foot regions. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine statistical differences between groups. The contact area and mean PR value beneath the mid-foot was significantly increased in the low arch foot when compared to the normal arch foot and high arch foot (p < 0.001) in both feet. However, subjects with low-arch feet had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) compared to subjects with high-arch feet (p < 0.05) and subjects with normal arch feet (p < 0.05) in both feet. In addition, subjects with low-arch feet had significant differences in arch index (AI) value as compared to subjects with high-arch feet (p < 0.001) and subjects with normal arch feet (p < 0.05) in both feet. Mean mid-foot PR value were positively (r = 0.54) correlated with increased arch index (AI) value. A significant (p < 0.05) change was obtained in PR value beneath the mid-foot of low arch feet when compared with other groups in both feet. The findings suggest that there is an increased mid-foot PR value in the low arch foot as compared to the normal arch foot and high arch foot during standing. Therefore, individuals with low arch feet could be at high risk for mid-foot collapse and Charcot foot problems, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual’s risk for foot injury.

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