“China Economic Weekly” reporter Li Yonghua
From demographic dividends to worker dividends, the future of Made in China is clear.
Difficulty recruiting is the common voice of almost all manufacturing companies. At the recruitment site of small and medium-sized foreign trade manufacturing in Guangdong, there are more bosses than workers looking for jobs; Beijing state-owned enterprises say that young people are reluctant to enter the factory. Manufacturing giants complain and offer “unprecedented” high salaries and still can’t grab people.
However, the other side of the shortage of workers is the difficulty in finding employment, especially the difficulty in finding employment for tens of millions of fresh graduates. This structural contradiction clearly shows that many people’s cognition of workers is still at the level of female assembly line garment workers in the 1980s and 1990s. A new shock has formed, and the manufacturing industry, which was once hard to find, no longer seems to be the first choice for employment.
Where will workers come from in the future? What kind of workers will Chinese manufacturing in the future need?
Where young people choose, there is a future. It is undeniable that, in the face of more and more job opportunities, young people are moving away from the assembly line, and assembly line enterprises are transferring production capacity to lower-cost areas at home and abroad.
Fortunately, the gear-making giant says, skilled workers will all be transformed into engineers. Craftsmen from big countries said that in the future, skilled workers will be the treasures of enterprises. “China Economic Weekly” reporters found in various interviews that the new environment brought about by the high-quality development of the manufacturing industry is refreshing young people’s perception of workers’ jobs, the status of skilled workers in enterprises continues to rise, and craftsmen from big countries are becoming more and more important. With the career pursuit of many young people, a team of well-educated and high-quality skilled workers is becoming the support for the future competitiveness of Chinese manufacturing.
The transformation is on the way, and “Made in China” is going to the future.
“A craftsman in a big country, the country needs people like you.” On June 29, 2021, when the “July 1st Medal” was awarded, General Secretary Xi Jinping said to Ai Aiguo, who has been focusing on welding for more than 50 years.
Ai Aiguo is the idol of Huang Hongjun and his brothers. Huang Hongjun, born in 2000, is already a welder with five years of service.
In 2017, he and his twin brother Huang Hongbing graduated from Changsha High-tech Engineering School and joined Zoomlion (000157.SZ). Five years later, both brothers became welding masters in Zoomlion’s structural factory. The younger brother, Huang Hongbing, was particularly outstanding. He won the first place in the Zoomlion “Craftsman Cup” newcomer welding skills competition; “The ‘Jack Cup’ International Welding Competition” won the third prize.
A paragraph on the cultural wall of Zoomlion’s workshop introducing Huang Hongbing reads: “Solid theoretical knowledge, rich practical experience, and superb welding skills. Electrode arc welding, MIG/MAG welding, TIG non-MIG welding, etc. A variety of welding technologies have high attainments. Now the forearm class is engaged in the X-ray flaw detection of key core welds with a pass rate of 99.9%.”
In 2017, when their brother entered the factory and became a new industrial worker, our country started a new era of industrial worker team construction reform.
On February 6, 2017, General Secretary Xi Jinping presided over the 32nd meeting of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms, and reviewed and approved the “Reform Plan for the Construction of Industrial Workers in the New Era”.
The Party Central Committee has always attached great importance to the construction of the industrial workforce, and it is the first time in the history of our party and the country to formulate and implement the “Reform Plan for the Construction of Industrial Workers in the New Era” to specifically plan and deploy the reform of the construction of the industrial workforce.
In September 2019, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave important instructions to Chinese skilled players in the 45th WorldSkills Competition: “The team of skilled workers is an important foundation to support Made in China and Created in China, and plays an important role in promoting high-quality economic development. .”
By the end of 2021, the total number of skilled talents in the country will exceed 200 million, and the number of high-skilled talents will exceed 60 million.
However, on August 30, 2021, Gao Gao, Deputy Secretary-General of the National Development and Reform Commission, introduced in an interview that the recruitment rate for skilled talents in my country has been maintained at above 1.5 for a long time, and even more than 2 for high-skilled talents. At present, the proportion of the total number of skilled talents in the country is constantly increasing, but compared with the huge labor force, the proportion is still low, and now it is less than 30%. The proportion of skilled talents in manufacturing powerhouses such as Germany and Japan can reach 70% to 80%.
Wang Dongming, chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, believes that compared with the requirements for promoting high-quality development, there are still problems such as the overall low skills and quality of the industrial workforce and the insufficient total number of skilled workers. It is necessary to accelerate the construction and reform of the industrial workforce, and strive to build a large and high-quality industrial workforce to provide strong human support for high-quality development. The “14th Five-Year Plan” for Employment Promotion pointed out that many new changes and new trends appeared in the employment field during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. The demographic structure and economic structure have undergone in-depth adjustments, and there have been major changes on both sides of labor supply and demand. Industrial transformation and upgrading and technological progress have put forward higher requirements for the skills and quality of laborers. “Coexisting with “difficulty in recruiting”, the structural employment contradiction will become more prominent and will become the main contradiction in the employment field.
During this year’s National People’s Congress, Yang Weimin, a member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, said that at present, there are structural contradictions in employment. On the one hand, the manufacturing industry generally lacks skilled workers; on the other hand, the youth unemployment rate is high.
Zou Bin, a deputy to the National People’s Congress and a construction worker born in 1995, told the China Economic Weekly reporter that at present, the construction site is indeed green and yellow, and most of the workers on the construction site are post-50s and post-60s. There are more and more industries with higher degrees of freedom, and young people have more and more employment choices, and many young people are reluctant to enter the construction industry.
Liu Bin, the head of human resources of a listed manufacturing company in Jiangxi, said that many technical jobs have been broken down, and there are no young people to try it, and the country has also realized this problem. In the critical period when a powerful country is advancing, it is necessary to cultivate and promote the craftsman spirit of rigorous, conscientiousness, excellence, and pursuit of perfection, so that the miracles made in China and created in China can continue.
Wang Dongming believes that whether it is to implement the strategy of manufacturing a strong country, promote industrial transformation and upgrading, or respond to the adjustment and reorganization of the international industrial chain and supply chain, maintain the safety and stability of my country’s industrial chain and supply chain, and improve the quality of industrial workers are the foundation and key.
Then, from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power, can China’s manufacturing industry attract young people to enter the factory? In the new era of digitization, intelligence and globalization, what unique styles will future skilled workers present?
On March 31, 73-year-old Aiguo Ai said in an interview with a reporter from China Economic Weekly that industrial workers who master the technological process are the “sweet pastry” that enterprises urgently need, even if enterprises become intelligent and intelligent in the future, they are inseparable. own craftsman.
“China Economic Weekly” extensive research found that the workers of the future will no longer be the “dirty and black” blue-collar workers in our old impression. They are saying goodbye to the “dangerous, heavy and dirty” working environment and mastering professional and sophisticated technology. , becoming a highly favored high-end talent in the market, enjoying better and better employment opportunities, gradually becoming a high-income group, and winning increasing respect and recognition from society and the government.
Relying on superb skills, Huang Hongjun and Huang Hongbing, young people from poor families in Leiyang, Hunan, not only built a new building in their hometown, but are also planning to buy a house and a car in Changsha. Huang Hongjun told the “China Economic Weekly” reporter: “I have a good time (classmates, friends), some in business, some in engineering, and some part-time jobs. It seems that I have a better life than me. We do Work is a bit tiring, but the sense of happiness is quite high.”
Li Xiaohong, director of Zoomlion’s Human Resource Management Center, said that with the continuous advancement of the company’s smart factory construction, more and more workers will be transformed into field engineers, and they will become the same sequence as technicians.
The relevant person in charge of the HR field of Jiangling Group introduced that the company is exploring the establishment of an internal training mechanism for new skilled talents. The company’s internal technical positions related to new skills have been given priority to internal employees, helping employees engaged in general and traditional jobs to transform into new skilled talents. .
Not only skilled workers like Huang Hongjun brothers, but also new energy, integrated circuits, industrial automation and other industries are favored by more and more highly educated talents. Some traditionally regarded as blue-collar jobs are full of doctors, returnees, blue-collar and white-collar workers. The dividing line between is gradually blurring.
“China Economic Weekly” chief photographer Xiao Yi | Photo
14,000 monthly salary to grab mechanical students, but “no one came in” during the special recruitment
The “14th Five-Year Plan for Employment Promotion” points out that we should focus on developing skill-intensive industries, promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional manufacturing industries, extend the industrial chain, and develop more skilled jobs in the manufacturing sector.
According to the “Ranking of the 100 Occupations in the Fourth Quarter of 2021 with “The Most Lack of Jobs” in the National Recruitment Greater Than Job Searches released by the China Employment Training Technology Guidance Center, 43 of these 100 occupations belong to manufacturing and related personnel, and “smart manufacturing” The lack of engineering in the field has increased, and the demand in the field of automobile production and consumption is booming. Occupations such as “auto parts remanufacturer”, “automotive trim manufacturer” and “automobile maintenance worker” are newly ranked; in the field of intelligent manufacturing, “multi-process CNC machine tool operation adjustment” The ranks of occupations such as “worker” and “industrial robot system operator” have risen, and the degree of lack of engineering has increased.
Supply and demand determine the trend. The shortage means that technical talents are more valuable in the market.
Three years ago, Liu Jun graduated from civil engineering in a university in Xi’an, and left after working in a construction company for nearly a year. Meituan takeaway.
Now, at the age of 25, he looks back on his own experience, “After a few years, I feel that I haven’t mastered a good specialty.” In the future, he hopes to take root in an industry, find a job with a little technical threshold, and enter a job where he can learn and improve.
The 25-year-old Yin Qi went out to work after graduating from junior high school. He went to a mobile phone assembly factory, worked in a car factory, and even worked as a network administrator in an Internet cafe, mainly for free games. After the Spring Festival this year, he finally decided to learn woodworking.
Whether it is Zeng Jun or Yin Qi, they all understand that high skills mean high wages, not to mention that if you have a skill, you will never worry about it.
Peng Zaiwu, general manager of the system branch of CRRC Times Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd., told China Economic Weekly: “In various manufacturing enterprises, there is an urgent need for high-skilled craftsmen, such as senior welders or other special types of work, and the salary is very high. ”
Aiguo Ai believes that the salary is the basis for new workers to be welcomed by young people. In recent years, the salary of the skilled workers of Valin Xiangtan Iron and Steel Plant where he works has increased with the rise of enterprise efficiency. “Workers do not want to leave when they come.”
Gong Xiaohong, the person in charge of Jiangxi Chezhibao Auto Service Plaza, said that there is a shortage of people in the auto repair profession across the country, and it is very easy to find employment. Some technicians can earn an annual salary of 200,000 yuan. “If you give me 500 graduates now, I can close it. If you look carefully, you can arrange employment for them at will.”
The person in charge of human resources of a manufacturing company said that in February this year, the company went to a 985 university to recruit students majoring in machinery and hydraulics, and the monthly salary was as high as 14,000 yuan, “We made a lot of determination to give such a standard. , which is unprecedented in the company’s history.”
Unexpectedly, no one was interested in this special recruitment, “not a single student came in”. Later, I found out that the students of this class have already been signed and locked in advance by other big factories with higher wages. “As soon as people open their mouths, they earn an annual salary of more than 200,000 to 300,000 yuan.”
The favorable treatment has quietly tipped the balance in the hearts of job seekers, and even employees of “big Internet companies” want to “make a move”. According to the Spring Recruitment Market Report released by the Zhilian Research Institute, compared with 2019, in the spring of 2022, 6.3% of Internet practitioners expect to turn to processing and manufacturing when applying for jobs, an increase of 2 percentage points from 2019.
From the perspective of the development history of the global manufacturing industry, with the overall upgrading and development of my country’s manufacturing industry, skilled workers will inevitably become more and more popular.
Chen Weizheng, a professor at Sichuan University, believes that skilled workers are very popular in manufacturing powerhouses such as Germany and Japan. After graduating from college students, they find a job in a large manufacturing company and become a craftsman-type skilled worker, which is a treasure of the factory.
Ai Aiguo said that in the future, skilled workers “are like old Chinese medicine practitioners, the older they are, the more valuable they are.”
“China Economic Weekly” chief photographer Xiao Yi | Photo
Site map of the internal work of the workshop of Zoomlion Smart Industry City
From worker to engineer, say goodbye to “dangerous and dirty”, this is a decent job
The “14th Five-Year Plan for Employment Promotion” proposes that simple and repetitive work links and “dangerous, heavy and dirty” jobs will be automated and intelligent as soon as possible, and the “machine substitution” in major safety risk areas will be accelerated.
After passing the test this year, Liu Qing, a post-95 welder in the same workshop as Huang Hongjun, recently took up a post at Zoomlion as a “field engineer”. The original blue tooling was replaced by a new suit. It is issued in accordance with the company’s research and development technology sequence”, and its work will be more about operating welding robots.
Huang Hongjun said that he was planning to apply for an undergraduate degree, and this year he also applied to become a field engineer. “In the future, we will move to the Smart Industry City to work. There are smart production lines, and the factory is too big to see.”
Zoomlion Smart Industrial City covers an area of nearly 10,000 mu and is expected to be the largest single park in the field of construction machinery in the world upon completion.
In the excavator production workshop that has been built, a reporter from China Economic Weekly saw that it is equipped with a lot of automation equipment full of technology, such as AGV automatic robots, RGV rail conveying trolleys, and gluing robots to achieve highly intelligent operations. According to official data from Zoomlion, an excavator can be offline every 6 minutes.
At present, Zoomlion has nearly 10,000 skilled workers. According to Li Xiaohong, director of Zoomlion Human Resources Management Center, during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, after the smart industry city is fully completed, Zoomlion’s “field engineers” will reach 10,000.
Not only Zoomlion, but also in Gree Electric (000651.SZ), Valin Iron and Steel (000932.SZ) and many manufacturing enterprises, as well as some clothing manufacturers, highly intelligent workshops have changed the manufacturing industry that once gave people The old impression of “dangerous, heavy and dirty” left behind, many of the original “dangerous, heavy and dirty” types of work either disappeared completely or were reborn.
In the past, painters were skilled jobs, and tower crane painting required many workers to manually operate, but the painting work was tiring and prone to occupational diseases. Now, as the world’s largest manufacturer of tower cranes, after Zoomlion adopts intelligent manufacturing, the painting is all automated by machines, and the odor of paint can no longer be smelled in the workshop.
Even the seemingly dirtiest and most tiring garbage disposal industry is changing. In Infore Environment (000967.SZ), a reporter from China Economic Weekly learned that the utilization rate of small intelligent equipment is spreading, and the labor intensity of sanitation workers is decreasing; The waste incineration station of Yongqing Environmental Protection (300187.SZ) looks like a garden at first glance. The whole process of waste is closed and transported into the station, and the operation is unmanned. The workers only need to operate on the screen to complete most of the work.
High labor intensity, poor working environment, and high safety risks are the characteristics of the traditional construction industry. It is an industry consensus that young people are unwilling to work.
Zou Bin told “China
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